Odysseus’ return from Trojan War dated

This story was originally published by Inside Science News Service. ISNS —Scientists who decode the genetic history of humans by tracking how genes mutate have applied the same technique to one of the Western world’s most ancient and celebrated texts to uncover the date it was first written. The text is Homer’s “Iliad,” and Homer — if there was such a person — probably wrote it in B. The “Iliad” tells the story of the Trojan War — if there was such a war — with Greeks battling Trojans. The researchers accept the received orthodoxy that a war happened and someone named Homer wrote about it, said Mark Pagel, an evolutionary theorist at the University of Reading in England. They worked from the standard text of the epic poem.

Researchers have found what could be the oldest written lines from Homer’s “Odyssey”

All rights reserved. Dating to about B. The Iliad and The Odyssey are two of the key works of Western civilization. But almost nothing is known about their author and the date and manner of their creation.

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The Odyssey is one of the great works of ancient Western literature, written eight centuries before the birth of Christ and four centuries after the fall of Troy. Generations of classicists have pored over the many lines of Homer’s epic description of the long journey taken by the hero Odysseus to his home island of Ithaca.

Now two scholars have found evidence to support the idea that one line, in the poem’s 20th book, refers to a total solar eclipse that occurred on 16 April BC — the day when Odysseus returned home to kill his wife’s suitors. If true, this would date the fall of Troy itself to precisely BC. It takes Odysseus 10 years to reach Ithaca after the year Trojan war.

During his time away, his young son, Telemachus, has grown into a man and his faithful wife, Penelope, is besieged by unruly suitors desperate to gain her hand in marriage. The Odyssey is the story of a long and great journey involving the beautiful nymph Calypso — who enslaves Odysseus for seven years as her lover — helpful divinities such as Athena and vengeful gods such as Poseidon.

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It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad , the other Homeric epic. The Odyssey is a fundamental work in the modern Western canon , being the oldest extant piece of Western literature , second to the Iliad. The poem mainly focuses on the Greek hero Odysseus known as Ulixes in Roman myth , [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] king of Ithaca , and his journey home after the fall of Troy. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach Ithaca after the ten-year Trojan War. The work continues to be read in the Homeric Greek and translated into modern languages around the world.

If true, this would date the fall of Troy itself to precisely BC. It takes Odysseus 10 years to reach Ithaca after the year Trojan war. During.

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Experts think they might have found the oldest-ever Greek copy of The Odyssey , the epic poem by Homer which is widely regarded as one of the most significant works of literature ever put down on paper An ancient slab of stone thought to date back to the 3rd century CE looks to contain 13 verses of the poem, detailing the return of the protagonist Ulysses to his home island of Ithaca after two decades of journeying. The plaque was discovered in the ancient city of Olympia in southern Greece, and is the fruit of three years of work carried out by the Greek Archaeological Services agency and the German Institute of Archaeology.

The plaque discovered in Greece. Greek Ministry of Culture and Sports. If that date is confirmed, it makes the stone carving the oldest written record of the epic poem found yet in the country — at least until the next discovery.

Homer’s Odyssey follows Odysseus’s adventure-filled year The Odyssey is widely believed to date back to the Eighth Century B.C., with.

Using clues from star and sun positions mentioned by the ancient Greek poet Homer, scholars think they have determined the date when King Odysseus returned from the Trojan War and slaughtered a group of suitors who had been pressing his wife to marry one of them. It was on April 16, B. Experts have long debated whether the books of Homer reflect the actual history of the Trojan War and its aftermath. Marcelo O. Magnasco of Rockefeller University in New York and Constantino Baikouzis of the Astronomical Observatory in La Plata, Argentina, acknowledge they had to make some assumptions to determine the date Odysseus returned to his kingdom of Ithaca.

But interpreting clues in Homer’s “Odyssey” as references to the positions of stars and a total eclipse of the sun allowed them to determine when a particular set of conditions would have occurred. Homer reports that on the day of the slaughter the sun is blotted from the sky, possibly a reference to an eclipse.

Oldest Greek Fragment of Homer Discovered on Clay Tablet

Assembling a new book of ancient stories translated by great writers, Of Gods and Men , I was surprised to discover how prevalent the tale of the Trojan War has been down the ages. Authors as diverse as John Dryden, Alexander Pope and Louis MacNeice have been moved to translate various versions of the classical myth. One reason the Trojan War has struck such a chord is that, besides being an excellent story, it has long been suspected to have actually happened.

For most ancient Greeks, indeed, the Trojan War was much more than a myth. It was an epoch-defining moment in their distant past.

[4] Through the words of the epic Muse, both the Iliad and Odyssey, each in its unique First, it is my opinion that there was a Trojan War—or wars—dating to the [30] In the twenty years that he has been absent, the “city” of Odysseus has​.

According to a new study of the epic tale “The Odyssey”, by the ancient Greek poet Homer, a total solar eclipse occurring during Odysseus’ return from Troy could help trace a more accurate timeline for the city’s fall. Astronomical clues found in Homer’s “The Odyssey” could help confirm a total solar eclipse when Odysseus returned home, providing a potentially accurate timeline for the fall of Troy, two scientists reported Monday. Historians and classicists for centuries have debated the eclipse hypothesis in the ancient Greek poet’s epic work, concluding reluctantly that no such reference exists in either “The Odyssey” or its predecessor, “The Iliad.

The clues, they claim, provide corroborating evidence of a solar eclipse when Odysseus returned home to murder the suitors who had taken advantage of his long absence to court his wife. The first clue is the description of a new moon on the day of Odysseus’ return, which is a prerequisite for a total solar eclipse. Six days before the massacre, Homer wrote, Venus shone brightly high in the sky; 29 days earlier, he said the Pleiades and Bootes constellations were both visible at sunset; and finally, 33 days before the massacre, he suggested Mercury was high at dawn and near the western end of its trajectory.

These four celestial indicators never occur in exactly the same timeframe, so the researchers looked for a period within years of the fall of Troy that would fit the astronomical pattern they had discovered.

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While the dating has not been fully confirmed, experts believe the artifact These fragments are “at least years older than the Olympia tablet. Emily Wilson Is the First Woman to Translate Homer’s Odyssey into English.

The epics of the Greek poet Homer, The Iliad and The Odyssey, have been recited around campfires and scrutinized by students for 2, years, if not longer. But now, reports the BBC , archeologists in Greece have found 13 verses from The Odyssey chiseled into a clay tablet dating to the third century A. The tablet was discovered near the ruins of the Temple of Zeus during three years of excavations in the ruins of the ancient city of Olympia on the Greek peninsula the Peloponnese.

In a press release , the Greek Culture Ministry says that the preliminary date of the text has been confirmed. If verified, it will be a priceless literary and historical artifact. In fact, any glimpse into Homer before medieval times is rare, and any insight into the composition of the epics is precious. Whether the stories were composed by a blind poet named Homer is a source of debate, though many researchers believe Homer was probably not a historical individual but a cultural tradition that developed the stories over many decades or centuries, with scribes writing them down sometime around the 8th century B.

Instead, bards would have told slightly different versions of the epics each time they recited them, using a technique known as composition-in-recitation. Scribes transcribing the recitations would have heard different versions depending on the storyteller, so there were likely various versions of the Homer epics works floating around the ancient world.

The versions we know now come from medieval copies made of the complete works based on ancient sources that are now lost. After those texts were rediscovered during the Rennaissance, they became classics and have been translated endlessly, with each generation adding their own scholarly take or literary spin to the tales.

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